The transistor is an essential component in nearly every modern electronic gadget.
In 1926, Julius Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor, but the working device was not feasible.

In 1947 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley developed the first practical device at Bell Laboratories.
It then won the trio 1956 Nobel Prize in physics.
Transistors have become a fundamental piece of the circuitry in countless electronic devices including televisions, cell phones, and computers making a remarkable impact on technology.