Concrete is one of the most widely used man-made material. It's a composite material composed of rough composite bonded together with a fluid cement which hardens over time.
Most concretes used are lime-based, asphalt concrete, and polymer concretes. Earlier, Limestone was used as a crude cement. As the materials and combinations improved, modern concrete was invented.
One of the key ingredients of concrete is cement. The foundation to cement was laid in 1300 BC.
Middle eastern builders coated the outside of their clay fortresses with a thin, and moist burned limestone, which chemically reacted with gasses in the air to form a hard, protective surface.
Around 6500 BC, the first concrete-like structures were built by the Nabataea traders or Bedouins in the southern Syria and northern Jordan regions.
By 700 BC, the significance of hydraulic lime was known, which led to the development of mortar supply kilns for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, and underground waterproof cisterns.
By 3000 BC, the Egyptians were using early forms of concrete to build pyramids.
In 1824, the most used Portland cement was invented by Joseph Aspdin of England. George Bartholomew had laid down the first concrete street in the US during 1891, which still exists.
By the end of the 19th century, the use of steel-reinforced concrete was developed. In 1902, using steel- reinforced concrete, August Perret designed and built an apartment building in Paris. This building a wide admiration and popularity to concrete and also influenced the development of reinforced concrete.
In 1921, Eugène Freyssinet pioneered the use of reinforced- concrete construction by building two colossal parabolic-arched airship hangars at Orly Airport in Paris.